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3 Installation Instructions
4 *************************
6 Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005,
7 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
9 Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
10 are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
11 notice and this notice are preserved. This file is offered as-is,
12 without warranty of any kind.
14 Basic Installation
15 ==================
17 Briefly, the shell commands `./configure; make; make install' should
18 configure, build, and install this package. The following
19 more-detailed instructions are generic; see the `README' file for
20 instructions specific to this package. Some packages provide this
21 `INSTALL' file but do not implement all of the features documented
22 below. The lack of an optional feature in a given package is not
23 necessarily a bug. More recommendations for GNU packages can be found
24 in *note Makefile Conventions: (standards)Makefile Conventions.
26 The `configure' shell script attempts to guess correct values for
27 various system-dependent variables used during compilation. It uses
28 those values to create a `Makefile' in each directory of the package.
29 It may also create one or more `.h' files containing system-dependent
30 definitions. Finally, it creates a shell script `config.status' that
31 you can run in the future to recreate the current configuration, and a
32 file `config.log' containing compiler output (useful mainly for
33 debugging `configure').
35 It can also use an optional file (typically called `config.cache'
36 and enabled with `--cache-file=config.cache' or simply `-C') that saves
37 the results of its tests to speed up reconfiguring. Caching is
38 disabled by default to prevent problems with accidental use of stale
39 cache files.
41 If you need to do unusual things to compile the package, please try
42 to figure out how `configure' could check whether to do them, and mail
43 diffs or instructions to the address given in the `README' so they can
44 be considered for the next release. If you are using the cache, and at
45 some point `config.cache' contains results you don't want to keep, you
46 may remove or edit it.
48 The file `configure.ac' (or `configure.in') is used to create
49 `configure' by a program called `autoconf'. You need `configure.ac' if
50 you want to change it or regenerate `configure' using a newer version
51 of `autoconf'.
53 The simplest way to compile this package is:
55 1. `cd' to the directory containing the package's source code and type
56 `./configure' to configure the package for your system.
58 Running `configure' might take a while. While running, it prints
59 some messages telling which features it is checking for.
61 2. Type `make' to compile the package.
63 3. Optionally, type `make check' to run any self-tests that come with
64 the package, generally using the just-built uninstalled binaries.
66 4. Type `make install' to install the programs and any data files and
67 documentation. When installing into a prefix owned by root, it is
68 recommended that the package be configured and built as a regular
69 user, and only the `make install' phase executed with root
70 privileges.
72 5. Optionally, type `make installcheck' to repeat any self-tests, but
73 this time using the binaries in their final installed location.
74 This target does not install anything. Running this target as a
75 regular user, particularly if the prior `make install' required
76 root privileges, verifies that the installation completed
77 correctly.
79 6. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
80 source code directory by typing `make clean'. To also remove the
81 files that `configure' created (so you can compile the package for
82 a different kind of computer), type `make distclean'. There is
83 also a `make maintainer-clean' target, but that is intended mainly
84 for the package's developers. If you use it, you may have to get
85 all sorts of other programs in order to regenerate files that came
86 with the distribution.
88 7. Often, you can also type `make uninstall' to remove the installed
89 files again. In practice, not all packages have tested that
90 uninstallation works correctly, even though it is required by the
91 GNU Coding Standards.
93 8. Some packages, particularly those that use Automake, provide `make
94 distcheck', which can by used by developers to test that all other
95 targets like `make install' and `make uninstall' work correctly.
96 This target is generally not run by end users.
98 Compilers and Options
99 =====================
101 Some systems require unusual options for compilation or linking that
102 the `configure' script does not know about. Run `./configure --help'
103 for details on some of the pertinent environment variables.
105 You can give `configure' initial values for configuration parameters
106 by setting variables in the command line or in the environment. Here
107 is an example:
109 ./configure CC=c99 CFLAGS=-g LIBS=-lposix
111 *Note Defining Variables::, for more details.
113 Compiling For Multiple Architectures
114 ====================================
116 You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
117 same time, by placing the object files for each architecture in their
118 own directory. To do this, you can use GNU `make'. `cd' to the
119 directory where you want the object files and executables to go and run
120 the `configure' script. `configure' automatically checks for the
121 source code in the directory that `configure' is in and in `..'. This
122 is known as a "VPATH" build.
124 With a non-GNU `make', it is safer to compile the package for one
125 architecture at a time in the source code directory. After you have
126 installed the package for one architecture, use `make distclean' before
127 reconfiguring for another architecture.
129 On MacOS X 10.5 and later systems, you can create libraries and
130 executables that work on multiple system types--known as "fat" or
131 "universal" binaries--by specifying multiple `-arch' options to the
132 compiler but only a single `-arch' option to the preprocessor. Like
133 this:
135 ./configure CC="gcc -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
136 CXX="g++ -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
137 CPP="gcc -E" CXXCPP="g++ -E"
139 This is not guaranteed to produce working output in all cases, you
140 may have to build one architecture at a time and combine the results
141 using the `lipo' tool if you have problems.
143 Installation Names
144 ==================
146 By default, `make install' installs the package's commands under
147 `/usr/local/bin', include files under `/usr/local/include', etc. You
148 can specify an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' by giving
149 `configure' the option `--prefix=PREFIX', where PREFIX must be an
150 absolute file name.
152 You can specify separate installation prefixes for
153 architecture-specific files and architecture-independent files. If you
154 pass the option `--exec-prefix=PREFIX' to `configure', the package uses
155 PREFIX as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
156 Documentation and other data files still use the regular prefix.
158 In addition, if you use an unusual directory layout you can give
159 options like `--bindir=DIR' to specify different values for particular
160 kinds of files. Run `configure --help' for a list of the directories
161 you can set and what kinds of files go in them. In general, the
162 default for these options is expressed in terms of `${prefix}', so that
163 specifying just `--prefix' will affect all of the other directory
164 specifications that were not explicitly provided.
166 The most portable way to affect installation locations is to pass the
167 correct locations to `configure'; however, many packages provide one or
168 both of the following shortcuts of passing variable assignments to the
169 `make install' command line to change installation locations without
170 having to reconfigure or recompile.
172 The first method involves providing an override variable for each
173 affected directory. For example, `make install
174 prefix=/alternate/directory' will choose an alternate location for all
175 directory configuration variables that were expressed in terms of
176 `${prefix}'. Any directories that were specified during `configure',
177 but not in terms of `${prefix}', must each be overridden at install
178 time for the entire installation to be relocated. The approach of
179 makefile variable overrides for each directory variable is required by
180 the GNU Coding Standards, and ideally causes no recompilation.
181 However, some platforms have known limitations with the semantics of
182 shared libraries that end up requiring recompilation when using this
183 method, particularly noticeable in packages that use GNU Libtool.
185 The second method involves providing the `DESTDIR' variable. For
186 example, `make install DESTDIR=/alternate/directory' will prepend
187 `/alternate/directory' before all installation names. The approach of
188 `DESTDIR' overrides is not required by the GNU Coding Standards, and
189 does not work on platforms that have drive letters. On the other hand,
190 it does better at avoiding recompilation issues, and works well even
191 when some directory options were not specified in terms of `${prefix}'
192 at `configure' time.
194 Optional Features
195 =================
197 If the package supports it, you can cause programs to be installed
198 with an extra prefix or suffix on their names by giving `configure' the
199 option `--program-prefix=PREFIX' or `--program-suffix=SUFFIX'.
201 Some packages pay attention to `--enable-FEATURE' options to
202 `configure', where FEATURE indicates an optional part of the package.
203 They may also pay attention to `--with-PACKAGE' options, where PACKAGE
204 is something like `gnu-as' or `x' (for the X Window System). The
205 `README' should mention any `--enable-' and `--with-' options that the
206 package recognizes.
208 For packages that use the X Window System, `configure' can usually
209 find the X include and library files automatically, but if it doesn't,
210 you can use the `configure' options `--x-includes=DIR' and
211 `--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations.
213 Some packages offer the ability to configure how verbose the
214 execution of `make' will be. For these packages, running `./configure
215 --enable-silent-rules' sets the default to minimal output, which can be
216 overridden with `make V=1'; while running `./configure
217 --disable-silent-rules' sets the default to verbose, which can be
218 overridden with `make V=0'.
220 Particular systems
221 ==================
223 On HP-UX, the default C compiler is not ANSI C compatible. If GNU
224 CC is not installed, it is recommended to use the following options in
225 order to use an ANSI C compiler:
227 ./configure CC="cc -Ae -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500"
229 and if that doesn't work, install pre-built binaries of GCC for HP-UX.
231 On OSF/1 a.k.a. Tru64, some versions of the default C compiler cannot
232 parse its `<wchar.h>' header file. The option `-nodtk' can be used as
233 a workaround. If GNU CC is not installed, it is therefore recommended
234 to try
236 ./configure CC="cc"
238 and if that doesn't work, try
240 ./configure CC="cc -nodtk"
242 On Solaris, don't put `/usr/ucb' early in your `PATH'. This
243 directory contains several dysfunctional programs; working variants of
244 these programs are available in `/usr/bin'. So, if you need `/usr/ucb'
245 in your `PATH', put it _after_ `/usr/bin'.
247 On Haiku, software installed for all users goes in `/boot/common',
248 not `/usr/local'. It is recommended to use the following options:
250 ./configure --prefix=/boot/common
252 Specifying the System Type
253 ==========================
255 There may be some features `configure' cannot figure out
256 automatically, but needs to determine by the type of machine the package
257 will run on. Usually, assuming the package is built to be run on the
258 _same_ architectures, `configure' can figure that out, but if it prints
259 a message saying it cannot guess the machine type, give it the
260 `--build=TYPE' option. TYPE can either be a short name for the system
261 type, such as `sun4', or a canonical name which has the form:
265 where SYSTEM can have one of these forms:
267 OS
270 See the file `config.sub' for the possible values of each field. If
271 `config.sub' isn't included in this package, then this package doesn't
272 need to know the machine type.
274 If you are _building_ compiler tools for cross-compiling, you should
275 use the option `--target=TYPE' to select the type of system they will
276 produce code for.
278 If you want to _use_ a cross compiler, that generates code for a
279 platform different from the build platform, you should specify the
280 "host" platform (i.e., that on which the generated programs will
281 eventually be run) with `--host=TYPE'.
283 Sharing Defaults
284 ================
286 If you want to set default values for `configure' scripts to share,
287 you can create a site shell script called `config.site' that gives
288 default values for variables like `CC', `cache_file', and `prefix'.
289 `configure' looks for `PREFIX/share/config.site' if it exists, then
290 `PREFIX/etc/config.site' if it exists. Or, you can set the
291 `CONFIG_SITE' environment variable to the location of the site script.
292 A warning: not all `configure' scripts look for a site script.
294 Defining Variables
295 ==================
297 Variables not defined in a site shell script can be set in the
298 environment passed to `configure'. However, some packages may run
299 configure again during the build, and the customized values of these
300 variables may be lost. In order to avoid this problem, you should set
301 them in the `configure' command line, using `VAR=value'. For example:
303 ./configure CC=/usr/local2/bin/gcc
305 causes the specified `gcc' to be used as the C compiler (unless it is
306 overridden in the site shell script).
308 Unfortunately, this technique does not work for `CONFIG_SHELL' due to
309 an Autoconf bug. Until the bug is fixed you can use this workaround:
311 CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash /bin/bash ./configure CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash
313 `configure' Invocation
314 ======================
316 `configure' recognizes the following options to control how it
317 operates.
319 `--help'
320 `-h'
321 Print a summary of all of the options to `configure', and exit.
323 `--help=short'
324 `--help=recursive'
325 Print a summary of the options unique to this package's
326 `configure', and exit. The `short' variant lists options used
327 only in the top level, while the `recursive' variant lists options
328 also present in any nested packages.
330 `--version'
331 `-V'
332 Print the version of Autoconf used to generate the `configure'
333 script, and exit.
335 `--cache-file=FILE'
336 Enable the cache: use and save the results of the tests in FILE,
337 traditionally `config.cache'. FILE defaults to `/dev/null' to
338 disable caching.
340 `--config-cache'
341 `-C'
342 Alias for `--cache-file=config.cache'.
344 `--quiet'
345 `--silent'
346 `-q'
347 Do not print messages saying which checks are being made. To
348 suppress all normal output, redirect it to `/dev/null' (any error
349 messages will still be shown).
351 `--srcdir=DIR'
352 Look for the package's source code in directory DIR. Usually
353 `configure' can determine that directory automatically.
355 `--prefix=DIR'
356 Use DIR as the installation prefix. *note Installation Names::
357 for more details, including other options available for fine-tuning
358 the installation locations.
360 `--no-create'
361 `-n'
362 Run the configure checks, but stop before creating any output
363 files.
365 `configure' also accepts some other, not widely useful, options. Run
366 `configure --help' for more details.

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