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3 zoff99 2 Installation Instructions
4     *************************
6     Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005,
7     2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
9     Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
10     are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
11     notice and this notice are preserved. This file is offered as-is,
12     without warranty of any kind.
14     Basic Installation
15     ==================
17     Briefly, the shell commands `./configure; make; make install' should
18     configure, build, and install this package. The following
19     more-detailed instructions are generic; see the `README' file for
20     instructions specific to this package. Some packages provide this
21     `INSTALL' file but do not implement all of the features documented
22     below. The lack of an optional feature in a given package is not
23     necessarily a bug. More recommendations for GNU packages can be found
24     in *note Makefile Conventions: (standards)Makefile Conventions.
26     The `configure' shell script attempts to guess correct values for
27     various system-dependent variables used during compilation. It uses
28     those values to create a `Makefile' in each directory of the package.
29     It may also create one or more `.h' files containing system-dependent
30     definitions. Finally, it creates a shell script `config.status' that
31     you can run in the future to recreate the current configuration, and a
32     file `config.log' containing compiler output (useful mainly for
33     debugging `configure').
35     It can also use an optional file (typically called `config.cache'
36     and enabled with `--cache-file=config.cache' or simply `-C') that saves
37     the results of its tests to speed up reconfiguring. Caching is
38     disabled by default to prevent problems with accidental use of stale
39     cache files.
41     If you need to do unusual things to compile the package, please try
42     to figure out how `configure' could check whether to do them, and mail
43     diffs or instructions to the address given in the `README' so they can
44     be considered for the next release. If you are using the cache, and at
45     some point `config.cache' contains results you don't want to keep, you
46     may remove or edit it.
48     The file `configure.ac' (or `configure.in') is used to create
49     `configure' by a program called `autoconf'. You need `configure.ac' if
50     you want to change it or regenerate `configure' using a newer version
51     of `autoconf'.
53     The simplest way to compile this package is:
55     1. `cd' to the directory containing the package's source code and type
56     `./configure' to configure the package for your system.
58     Running `configure' might take a while. While running, it prints
59     some messages telling which features it is checking for.
61     2. Type `make' to compile the package.
63     3. Optionally, type `make check' to run any self-tests that come with
64     the package, generally using the just-built uninstalled binaries.
66     4. Type `make install' to install the programs and any data files and
67     documentation. When installing into a prefix owned by root, it is
68     recommended that the package be configured and built as a regular
69     user, and only the `make install' phase executed with root
70     privileges.
72     5. Optionally, type `make installcheck' to repeat any self-tests, but
73     this time using the binaries in their final installed location.
74     This target does not install anything. Running this target as a
75     regular user, particularly if the prior `make install' required
76     root privileges, verifies that the installation completed
77     correctly.
79     6. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
80     source code directory by typing `make clean'. To also remove the
81     files that `configure' created (so you can compile the package for
82     a different kind of computer), type `make distclean'. There is
83     also a `make maintainer-clean' target, but that is intended mainly
84     for the package's developers. If you use it, you may have to get
85     all sorts of other programs in order to regenerate files that came
86     with the distribution.
88     7. Often, you can also type `make uninstall' to remove the installed
89     files again. In practice, not all packages have tested that
90     uninstallation works correctly, even though it is required by the
91     GNU Coding Standards.
93     8. Some packages, particularly those that use Automake, provide `make
94     distcheck', which can by used by developers to test that all other
95     targets like `make install' and `make uninstall' work correctly.
96     This target is generally not run by end users.
98     Compilers and Options
99     =====================
101     Some systems require unusual options for compilation or linking that
102     the `configure' script does not know about. Run `./configure --help'
103     for details on some of the pertinent environment variables.
105     You can give `configure' initial values for configuration parameters
106     by setting variables in the command line or in the environment. Here
107     is an example:
109     ./configure CC=c99 CFLAGS=-g LIBS=-lposix
111     *Note Defining Variables::, for more details.
113     Compiling For Multiple Architectures
114     ====================================
116     You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
117     same time, by placing the object files for each architecture in their
118     own directory. To do this, you can use GNU `make'. `cd' to the
119     directory where you want the object files and executables to go and run
120     the `configure' script. `configure' automatically checks for the
121     source code in the directory that `configure' is in and in `..'. This
122     is known as a "VPATH" build.
124     With a non-GNU `make', it is safer to compile the package for one
125     architecture at a time in the source code directory. After you have
126     installed the package for one architecture, use `make distclean' before
127     reconfiguring for another architecture.
129     On MacOS X 10.5 and later systems, you can create libraries and
130     executables that work on multiple system types--known as "fat" or
131     "universal" binaries--by specifying multiple `-arch' options to the
132     compiler but only a single `-arch' option to the preprocessor. Like
133     this:
135     ./configure CC="gcc -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
136     CXX="g++ -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
137     CPP="gcc -E" CXXCPP="g++ -E"
139     This is not guaranteed to produce working output in all cases, you
140     may have to build one architecture at a time and combine the results
141     using the `lipo' tool if you have problems.
143     Installation Names
144     ==================
146     By default, `make install' installs the package's commands under
147     `/usr/local/bin', include files under `/usr/local/include', etc. You
148     can specify an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' by giving
149     `configure' the option `--prefix=PREFIX', where PREFIX must be an
150     absolute file name.
152     You can specify separate installation prefixes for
153     architecture-specific files and architecture-independent files. If you
154     pass the option `--exec-prefix=PREFIX' to `configure', the package uses
155     PREFIX as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
156     Documentation and other data files still use the regular prefix.
158     In addition, if you use an unusual directory layout you can give
159     options like `--bindir=DIR' to specify different values for particular
160     kinds of files. Run `configure --help' for a list of the directories
161     you can set and what kinds of files go in them. In general, the
162     default for these options is expressed in terms of `${prefix}', so that
163     specifying just `--prefix' will affect all of the other directory
164     specifications that were not explicitly provided.
166     The most portable way to affect installation locations is to pass the
167     correct locations to `configure'; however, many packages provide one or
168     both of the following shortcuts of passing variable assignments to the
169     `make install' command line to change installation locations without
170     having to reconfigure or recompile.
172     The first method involves providing an override variable for each
173     affected directory. For example, `make install
174     prefix=/alternate/directory' will choose an alternate location for all
175     directory configuration variables that were expressed in terms of
176     `${prefix}'. Any directories that were specified during `configure',
177     but not in terms of `${prefix}', must each be overridden at install
178     time for the entire installation to be relocated. The approach of
179     makefile variable overrides for each directory variable is required by
180     the GNU Coding Standards, and ideally causes no recompilation.
181     However, some platforms have known limitations with the semantics of
182     shared libraries that end up requiring recompilation when using this
183     method, particularly noticeable in packages that use GNU Libtool.
185     The second method involves providing the `DESTDIR' variable. For
186     example, `make install DESTDIR=/alternate/directory' will prepend
187     `/alternate/directory' before all installation names. The approach of
188     `DESTDIR' overrides is not required by the GNU Coding Standards, and
189     does not work on platforms that have drive letters. On the other hand,
190     it does better at avoiding recompilation issues, and works well even
191     when some directory options were not specified in terms of `${prefix}'
192     at `configure' time.
194     Optional Features
195     =================
197     If the package supports it, you can cause programs to be installed
198     with an extra prefix or suffix on their names by giving `configure' the
199     option `--program-prefix=PREFIX' or `--program-suffix=SUFFIX'.
201     Some packages pay attention to `--enable-FEATURE' options to
202     `configure', where FEATURE indicates an optional part of the package.
203     They may also pay attention to `--with-PACKAGE' options, where PACKAGE
204     is something like `gnu-as' or `x' (for the X Window System). The
205     `README' should mention any `--enable-' and `--with-' options that the
206     package recognizes.
208     For packages that use the X Window System, `configure' can usually
209     find the X include and library files automatically, but if it doesn't,
210     you can use the `configure' options `--x-includes=DIR' and
211     `--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations.
213     Some packages offer the ability to configure how verbose the
214     execution of `make' will be. For these packages, running `./configure
215     --enable-silent-rules' sets the default to minimal output, which can be
216     overridden with `make V=1'; while running `./configure
217     --disable-silent-rules' sets the default to verbose, which can be
218     overridden with `make V=0'.
220     Particular systems
221     ==================
223     On HP-UX, the default C compiler is not ANSI C compatible. If GNU
224     CC is not installed, it is recommended to use the following options in
225     order to use an ANSI C compiler:
227     ./configure CC="cc -Ae -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500"
229     and if that doesn't work, install pre-built binaries of GCC for HP-UX.
231     On OSF/1 a.k.a. Tru64, some versions of the default C compiler cannot
232     parse its `<wchar.h>' header file. The option `-nodtk' can be used as
233     a workaround. If GNU CC is not installed, it is therefore recommended
234     to try
236     ./configure CC="cc"
238     and if that doesn't work, try
240     ./configure CC="cc -nodtk"
242     On Solaris, don't put `/usr/ucb' early in your `PATH'. This
243     directory contains several dysfunctional programs; working variants of
244     these programs are available in `/usr/bin'. So, if you need `/usr/ucb'
245     in your `PATH', put it _after_ `/usr/bin'.
247     On Haiku, software installed for all users goes in `/boot/common',
248     not `/usr/local'. It is recommended to use the following options:
250     ./configure --prefix=/boot/common
252     Specifying the System Type
253     ==========================
255     There may be some features `configure' cannot figure out
256     automatically, but needs to determine by the type of machine the package
257     will run on. Usually, assuming the package is built to be run on the
258     _same_ architectures, `configure' can figure that out, but if it prints
259     a message saying it cannot guess the machine type, give it the
260     `--build=TYPE' option. TYPE can either be a short name for the system
261     type, such as `sun4', or a canonical name which has the form:
265     where SYSTEM can have one of these forms:
267     OS
268     KERNEL-OS
270     See the file `config.sub' for the possible values of each field. If
271     `config.sub' isn't included in this package, then this package doesn't
272     need to know the machine type.
274     If you are _building_ compiler tools for cross-compiling, you should
275     use the option `--target=TYPE' to select the type of system they will
276     produce code for.
278     If you want to _use_ a cross compiler, that generates code for a
279     platform different from the build platform, you should specify the
280     "host" platform (i.e., that on which the generated programs will
281     eventually be run) with `--host=TYPE'.
283     Sharing Defaults
284     ================
286     If you want to set default values for `configure' scripts to share,
287     you can create a site shell script called `config.site' that gives
288     default values for variables like `CC', `cache_file', and `prefix'.
289     `configure' looks for `PREFIX/share/config.site' if it exists, then
290     `PREFIX/etc/config.site' if it exists. Or, you can set the
291     `CONFIG_SITE' environment variable to the location of the site script.
292     A warning: not all `configure' scripts look for a site script.
294     Defining Variables
295     ==================
297     Variables not defined in a site shell script can be set in the
298     environment passed to `configure'. However, some packages may run
299     configure again during the build, and the customized values of these
300     variables may be lost. In order to avoid this problem, you should set
301     them in the `configure' command line, using `VAR=value'. For example:
303     ./configure CC=/usr/local2/bin/gcc
305     causes the specified `gcc' to be used as the C compiler (unless it is
306     overridden in the site shell script).
308     Unfortunately, this technique does not work for `CONFIG_SHELL' due to
309     an Autoconf bug. Until the bug is fixed you can use this workaround:
311     CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash /bin/bash ./configure CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash
313     `configure' Invocation
314     ======================
316     `configure' recognizes the following options to control how it
317     operates.
319     `--help'
320     `-h'
321     Print a summary of all of the options to `configure', and exit.
323     `--help=short'
324     `--help=recursive'
325     Print a summary of the options unique to this package's
326     `configure', and exit. The `short' variant lists options used
327     only in the top level, while the `recursive' variant lists options
328     also present in any nested packages.
330     `--version'
331     `-V'
332     Print the version of Autoconf used to generate the `configure'
333     script, and exit.
335     `--cache-file=FILE'
336     Enable the cache: use and save the results of the tests in FILE,
337     traditionally `config.cache'. FILE defaults to `/dev/null' to
338     disable caching.
340     `--config-cache'
341     `-C'
342     Alias for `--cache-file=config.cache'.
344     `--quiet'
345     `--silent'
346     `-q'
347     Do not print messages saying which checks are being made. To
348     suppress all normal output, redirect it to `/dev/null' (any error
349     messages will still be shown).
351     `--srcdir=DIR'
352     Look for the package's source code in directory DIR. Usually
353     `configure' can determine that directory automatically.
355     `--prefix=DIR'
356     Use DIR as the installation prefix. *note Installation Names::
357     for more details, including other options available for fine-tuning
358     the installation locations.
360     `--no-create'
361     `-n'
362     Run the configure checks, but stop before creating any output
363     files.
365     `configure' also accepts some other, not widely useful, options. Run
366     `configure --help' for more details.

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