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1 zoff99 2 Installation Instructions
2     *************************
4     Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005,
5     2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
7     Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
8     are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
9     notice and this notice are preserved. This file is offered as-is,
10     without warranty of any kind.
12     Basic Installation
13     ==================
15     Briefly, the shell commands `./configure; make; make install' should
16     configure, build, and install this package. The following
17     more-detailed instructions are generic; see the `README' file for
18     instructions specific to this package. Some packages provide this
19     `INSTALL' file but do not implement all of the features documented
20     below. The lack of an optional feature in a given package is not
21     necessarily a bug. More recommendations for GNU packages can be found
22     in *note Makefile Conventions: (standards)Makefile Conventions.
24     The `configure' shell script attempts to guess correct values for
25     various system-dependent variables used during compilation. It uses
26     those values to create a `Makefile' in each directory of the package.
27     It may also create one or more `.h' files containing system-dependent
28     definitions. Finally, it creates a shell script `config.status' that
29     you can run in the future to recreate the current configuration, and a
30     file `config.log' containing compiler output (useful mainly for
31     debugging `configure').
33     It can also use an optional file (typically called `config.cache'
34     and enabled with `--cache-file=config.cache' or simply `-C') that saves
35     the results of its tests to speed up reconfiguring. Caching is
36     disabled by default to prevent problems with accidental use of stale
37     cache files.
39     If you need to do unusual things to compile the package, please try
40     to figure out how `configure' could check whether to do them, and mail
41     diffs or instructions to the address given in the `README' so they can
42     be considered for the next release. If you are using the cache, and at
43     some point `config.cache' contains results you don't want to keep, you
44     may remove or edit it.
46     The file `configure.ac' (or `configure.in') is used to create
47     `configure' by a program called `autoconf'. You need `configure.ac' if
48     you want to change it or regenerate `configure' using a newer version
49     of `autoconf'.
51     The simplest way to compile this package is:
53     1. `cd' to the directory containing the package's source code and type
54     `./configure' to configure the package for your system.
56     Running `configure' might take a while. While running, it prints
57     some messages telling which features it is checking for.
59     2. Type `make' to compile the package.
61     3. Optionally, type `make check' to run any self-tests that come with
62     the package, generally using the just-built uninstalled binaries.
64     4. Type `make install' to install the programs and any data files and
65     documentation. When installing into a prefix owned by root, it is
66     recommended that the package be configured and built as a regular
67     user, and only the `make install' phase executed with root
68     privileges.
70     5. Optionally, type `make installcheck' to repeat any self-tests, but
71     this time using the binaries in their final installed location.
72     This target does not install anything. Running this target as a
73     regular user, particularly if the prior `make install' required
74     root privileges, verifies that the installation completed
75     correctly.
77     6. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
78     source code directory by typing `make clean'. To also remove the
79     files that `configure' created (so you can compile the package for
80     a different kind of computer), type `make distclean'. There is
81     also a `make maintainer-clean' target, but that is intended mainly
82     for the package's developers. If you use it, you may have to get
83     all sorts of other programs in order to regenerate files that came
84     with the distribution.
86     7. Often, you can also type `make uninstall' to remove the installed
87     files again. In practice, not all packages have tested that
88     uninstallation works correctly, even though it is required by the
89     GNU Coding Standards.
91     8. Some packages, particularly those that use Automake, provide `make
92     distcheck', which can by used by developers to test that all other
93     targets like `make install' and `make uninstall' work correctly.
94     This target is generally not run by end users.
96     Compilers and Options
97     =====================
99     Some systems require unusual options for compilation or linking that
100     the `configure' script does not know about. Run `./configure --help'
101     for details on some of the pertinent environment variables.
103     You can give `configure' initial values for configuration parameters
104     by setting variables in the command line or in the environment. Here
105     is an example:
107     ./configure CC=c99 CFLAGS=-g LIBS=-lposix
109     *Note Defining Variables::, for more details.
111     Compiling For Multiple Architectures
112     ====================================
114     You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
115     same time, by placing the object files for each architecture in their
116     own directory. To do this, you can use GNU `make'. `cd' to the
117     directory where you want the object files and executables to go and run
118     the `configure' script. `configure' automatically checks for the
119     source code in the directory that `configure' is in and in `..'. This
120     is known as a "VPATH" build.
122     With a non-GNU `make', it is safer to compile the package for one
123     architecture at a time in the source code directory. After you have
124     installed the package for one architecture, use `make distclean' before
125     reconfiguring for another architecture.
127     On MacOS X 10.5 and later systems, you can create libraries and
128     executables that work on multiple system types--known as "fat" or
129     "universal" binaries--by specifying multiple `-arch' options to the
130     compiler but only a single `-arch' option to the preprocessor. Like
131     this:
133     ./configure CC="gcc -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
134     CXX="g++ -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
135     CPP="gcc -E" CXXCPP="g++ -E"
137     This is not guaranteed to produce working output in all cases, you
138     may have to build one architecture at a time and combine the results
139     using the `lipo' tool if you have problems.
141     Installation Names
142     ==================
144     By default, `make install' installs the package's commands under
145     `/usr/local/bin', include files under `/usr/local/include', etc. You
146     can specify an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' by giving
147     `configure' the option `--prefix=PREFIX', where PREFIX must be an
148     absolute file name.
150     You can specify separate installation prefixes for
151     architecture-specific files and architecture-independent files. If you
152     pass the option `--exec-prefix=PREFIX' to `configure', the package uses
153     PREFIX as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
154     Documentation and other data files still use the regular prefix.
156     In addition, if you use an unusual directory layout you can give
157     options like `--bindir=DIR' to specify different values for particular
158     kinds of files. Run `configure --help' for a list of the directories
159     you can set and what kinds of files go in them. In general, the
160     default for these options is expressed in terms of `${prefix}', so that
161     specifying just `--prefix' will affect all of the other directory
162     specifications that were not explicitly provided.
164     The most portable way to affect installation locations is to pass the
165     correct locations to `configure'; however, many packages provide one or
166     both of the following shortcuts of passing variable assignments to the
167     `make install' command line to change installation locations without
168     having to reconfigure or recompile.
170     The first method involves providing an override variable for each
171     affected directory. For example, `make install
172     prefix=/alternate/directory' will choose an alternate location for all
173     directory configuration variables that were expressed in terms of
174     `${prefix}'. Any directories that were specified during `configure',
175     but not in terms of `${prefix}', must each be overridden at install
176     time for the entire installation to be relocated. The approach of
177     makefile variable overrides for each directory variable is required by
178     the GNU Coding Standards, and ideally causes no recompilation.
179     However, some platforms have known limitations with the semantics of
180     shared libraries that end up requiring recompilation when using this
181     method, particularly noticeable in packages that use GNU Libtool.
183     The second method involves providing the `DESTDIR' variable. For
184     example, `make install DESTDIR=/alternate/directory' will prepend
185     `/alternate/directory' before all installation names. The approach of
186     `DESTDIR' overrides is not required by the GNU Coding Standards, and
187     does not work on platforms that have drive letters. On the other hand,
188     it does better at avoiding recompilation issues, and works well even
189     when some directory options were not specified in terms of `${prefix}'
190     at `configure' time.
192     Optional Features
193     =================
195     If the package supports it, you can cause programs to be installed
196     with an extra prefix or suffix on their names by giving `configure' the
197     option `--program-prefix=PREFIX' or `--program-suffix=SUFFIX'.
199     Some packages pay attention to `--enable-FEATURE' options to
200     `configure', where FEATURE indicates an optional part of the package.
201     They may also pay attention to `--with-PACKAGE' options, where PACKAGE
202     is something like `gnu-as' or `x' (for the X Window System). The
203     `README' should mention any `--enable-' and `--with-' options that the
204     package recognizes.
206     For packages that use the X Window System, `configure' can usually
207     find the X include and library files automatically, but if it doesn't,
208     you can use the `configure' options `--x-includes=DIR' and
209     `--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations.
211     Some packages offer the ability to configure how verbose the
212     execution of `make' will be. For these packages, running `./configure
213     --enable-silent-rules' sets the default to minimal output, which can be
214     overridden with `make V=1'; while running `./configure
215     --disable-silent-rules' sets the default to verbose, which can be
216     overridden with `make V=0'.
218     Particular systems
219     ==================
221     On HP-UX, the default C compiler is not ANSI C compatible. If GNU
222     CC is not installed, it is recommended to use the following options in
223     order to use an ANSI C compiler:
225     ./configure CC="cc -Ae -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500"
227     and if that doesn't work, install pre-built binaries of GCC for HP-UX.
229     On OSF/1 a.k.a. Tru64, some versions of the default C compiler cannot
230     parse its `<wchar.h>' header file. The option `-nodtk' can be used as
231     a workaround. If GNU CC is not installed, it is therefore recommended
232     to try
234     ./configure CC="cc"
236     and if that doesn't work, try
238     ./configure CC="cc -nodtk"
240     On Solaris, don't put `/usr/ucb' early in your `PATH'. This
241     directory contains several dysfunctional programs; working variants of
242     these programs are available in `/usr/bin'. So, if you need `/usr/ucb'
243     in your `PATH', put it _after_ `/usr/bin'.
245     On Haiku, software installed for all users goes in `/boot/common',
246     not `/usr/local'. It is recommended to use the following options:
248     ./configure --prefix=/boot/common
250     Specifying the System Type
251     ==========================
253     There may be some features `configure' cannot figure out
254     automatically, but needs to determine by the type of machine the package
255     will run on. Usually, assuming the package is built to be run on the
256     _same_ architectures, `configure' can figure that out, but if it prints
257     a message saying it cannot guess the machine type, give it the
258     `--build=TYPE' option. TYPE can either be a short name for the system
259     type, such as `sun4', or a canonical name which has the form:
263     where SYSTEM can have one of these forms:
265     OS
266     KERNEL-OS
268     See the file `config.sub' for the possible values of each field. If
269     `config.sub' isn't included in this package, then this package doesn't
270     need to know the machine type.
272     If you are _building_ compiler tools for cross-compiling, you should
273     use the option `--target=TYPE' to select the type of system they will
274     produce code for.
276     If you want to _use_ a cross compiler, that generates code for a
277     platform different from the build platform, you should specify the
278     "host" platform (i.e., that on which the generated programs will
279     eventually be run) with `--host=TYPE'.
281     Sharing Defaults
282     ================
284     If you want to set default values for `configure' scripts to share,
285     you can create a site shell script called `config.site' that gives
286     default values for variables like `CC', `cache_file', and `prefix'.
287     `configure' looks for `PREFIX/share/config.site' if it exists, then
288     `PREFIX/etc/config.site' if it exists. Or, you can set the
289     `CONFIG_SITE' environment variable to the location of the site script.
290     A warning: not all `configure' scripts look for a site script.
292     Defining Variables
293     ==================
295     Variables not defined in a site shell script can be set in the
296     environment passed to `configure'. However, some packages may run
297     configure again during the build, and the customized values of these
298     variables may be lost. In order to avoid this problem, you should set
299     them in the `configure' command line, using `VAR=value'. For example:
301     ./configure CC=/usr/local2/bin/gcc
303     causes the specified `gcc' to be used as the C compiler (unless it is
304     overridden in the site shell script).
306     Unfortunately, this technique does not work for `CONFIG_SHELL' due to
307     an Autoconf bug. Until the bug is fixed you can use this workaround:
309     CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash /bin/bash ./configure CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash
311     `configure' Invocation
312     ======================
314     `configure' recognizes the following options to control how it
315     operates.
317     `--help'
318     `-h'
319     Print a summary of all of the options to `configure', and exit.
321     `--help=short'
322     `--help=recursive'
323     Print a summary of the options unique to this package's
324     `configure', and exit. The `short' variant lists options used
325     only in the top level, while the `recursive' variant lists options
326     also present in any nested packages.
328     `--version'
329     `-V'
330     Print the version of Autoconf used to generate the `configure'
331     script, and exit.
333     `--cache-file=FILE'
334     Enable the cache: use and save the results of the tests in FILE,
335     traditionally `config.cache'. FILE defaults to `/dev/null' to
336     disable caching.
338     `--config-cache'
339     `-C'
340     Alias for `--cache-file=config.cache'.
342     `--quiet'
343     `--silent'
344     `-q'
345     Do not print messages saying which checks are being made. To
346     suppress all normal output, redirect it to `/dev/null' (any error
347     messages will still be shown).
349     `--srcdir=DIR'
350     Look for the package's source code in directory DIR. Usually
351     `configure' can determine that directory automatically.
353     `--prefix=DIR'
354     Use DIR as the installation prefix. *note Installation Names::
355     for more details, including other options available for fine-tuning
356     the installation locations.
358     `--no-create'
359     `-n'
360     Run the configure checks, but stop before creating any output
361     files.
363     `configure' also accepts some other, not widely useful, options. Run
364     `configure --help' for more details.

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